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Coffee dictionary
2012/10/11 14:22:42  Views:4499
  
品尝术语 Testing Terms
品尝时要区分咖啡的口味、口感、酸味和芳香是否神怡。以下是多数品尝者的判断标准。
While tasting the coffee, you should try to discern whether the flavor, body background="../images_new/bg_hei.jpg", acidity and aroma of the coffee is pleasant, or unpleasant. Here are the criteria that most tasters use to judge coffee:
酸性
酸性是咖啡的必备特征,是舌下缘和后腭的干燥感觉。咖啡酸味的效果与红酒的口感类似,具有强烈而令人兴奋的质感。没有足够的酸性,咖啡就会趋于平淡。酸性与酸味不同,酸味是令人不快的不好口味特征。
Acidity
Acidity is a desirable characteristic in coffee. It is the sensation of dryness that the coffee produces under the edges of your tongue and on the back of your palate. The role acidity plays in coffee is not unlike its role as related to the flavor of wine. It provides a sharp, bright, vibrant quality. With out sufficient acidity, the coffee will tend to taste flat. Acidity should not be confused with sour, which is an unpleasant, negative flavor characteristic.
芳香 Aroma
芳香感觉很难与口味分开。如果没有嗅觉,我们的基本味觉是:甜、酸、咸和苦。芳香嗅觉丰富了软腭对于口感的辨别种类。微感细腻,比如芬芳或酒样感觉,就来自酿制咖啡的芳香气味。

Aroma is a sensation which is difficult to separate from flavor. Without our sense of smell, our only taste sensations would be: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. The aroma contributes to the flavors we discern on our palates. Subtle nuances, such as "floral" or "winy" characteristics, are derived from the aroma of the brewed coffee.
口感
口感是咖啡在口中的感觉,即作用于舌头产生的粘性、厚重和丰富度的感觉。举例来说,喝一口牛奶的感觉就与喝水不同。咖啡的口感与酿制时提取的油质和固体颗粒有关。比如印尼咖啡就比中南美洲咖啡口感重。如果你无法确定几种咖啡的口感差别,试着加入等量的牛奶。口感厚重的咖啡用牛奶稀释后会保持更多的风味。
body background="../images_new/bg_hei.jpg"
body background="../images_new/bg_hei.jpg" is the feeling that the coffee has in your mouth. It is the viscosity, heaviness, thickness, or richness that is perceived on the tongue. A good example of body background="../images_new/bg_hei.jpg" would be that of the feeling of whole milk in your mouth, as compared to water. Your perception of the body background="../images_new/bg_hei.jpg" of a coffee is related to the oils and solids extracted during brewing. Typically, Indonesian coffees will possess greater body background="../images_new/bg_hei.jpg" than South and Central American coffees. If you are unsure of the level of body background="../images_new/bg_hei.jpg" when comparing several coffees, try adding an equal amount of milk to each. Coffees with a heavier body background="../images_new/bg_hei.jpg" will maintain more of their flavor when diluted.
口味
口味是咖啡入口的总体感觉。酸味、芳香、和口感都是口味的组成成分。是上述感觉平衡和混合产生了总体感觉。下面是常见的口味特征:
Flavor
Flavor is the overall perception of the coffee in your mouth. Acidity, aroma, and body background="../images_new/bg_hei.jpg" are all components of flavor. It is the balance and homogenization of these senses that create your overall perception of flavor. The following are typical flavor characteristics:
一般口感特征
丰富——指口感和丰富程度
混合性——多种口感的意思
平衡——所有基本感觉特征都令人满意,没有哪种感觉掩盖了其他感觉。
General flavor characteristics
Richness—refers to body background="../images_new/bg_hei.jpg" and fullness
Complexity— the perception of multiple flavors
Balance— the satisfying presence of all the basic taste characteristics where no one over-powers another
常见的令人喜欢的特质
明亮,干燥,锋利,滑润——(中美洲常见)
糖饴味——像糖或者糖浆
巧克力味——类似不加糖的巧克力或者香草的回味
精致——舌尖的细微口味(水洗新几内亚产阿拉比卡豆)
土味——泥土的芳香特质(苏门答腊咖啡)
芳香——介于芬芳和刺激之间的芳香特质
果味——类似樱桃或者橙子的芳香特质
圆滑——口感顺滑,一般无酸味
栗子味——类似炒栗子的味道
辛辣——类似辣椒的口味或者芳香
甜味——无刺激感
粗野——口感很冲,一般人不喜欢;但常见于埃塞俄比亚咖啡
酒味——类似充分酿熟了的葡萄酒的回味(常见于肯尼亚和也门咖啡)
Typical specific desirable flavor characteristics
Bright, Dry, Sharp, or Snappy— (typical of Central American coffees)
Caramelly —candy like or syrupy
Chocolaty— an aftertaste similar to unsweetened chocolate or vanilla
Delicate— a subtle flavor perceived on the tip of the tongue (typical of washed New Guinea arabica)
Earthy— a soily characteristic (typical of Sumatran coffees)
Fragrant— an aromatic characteristic ranging from floral to spicy
Fruity— an aromatic characteristic reminiscent of berries or citrus
Mellow— a round, smooth taste, typically lacking acid
Nutty— an aftertaste similar to roasted nuts
Spicy— a flavor and aroma reminiscent of spices
Sweet— free of harshness
Wildness— a gamey flavor which is not usually considered favorable but is typical of Ethiopian coffees
Winy— an aftertaste reminiscent of well-matured wine (typical of Kenyan and Yemeni coffees)
常见的令人不喜欢的特质
苦——产生于舌根的味道,多数由于烘烤过度所致
淡——气味过于平淡
炭味——焦炭味太浓
死寂——无酸味,缺乏芳香和回味
脏——颗粒多,令人反胃
土味——颗粒多,令人反胃
平庸——无酸味,缺乏芳香和回味
草味——类似刚锄下来的青草的气味
糙——刺激、粗糙的特质
泥味——厚腻
混浊——淀粉似的,类似煮过面糊的水
粗——舌头上类似吃盐的感觉
橡胶味——类似焦橡胶的气味(一般仅见于干燥处理的阿拉比卡豆)
软——气味过于平淡
酸味——类似生水果的酸涩味
薄——无酸性,大致因为酿制不足所致
松节油味——松节油的气味
水浸味——入口无整体感,或缺乏粘性
粗野——冲劲十足的特质
Typical specific undesirable flavor characteristics
Bitter— perceived on the back of the tongue, usually a result of over roasting
Bland— neutral in flavor
Carbony— burnt charcoaly overtones
Dead— see "flat"
Dirty— a mustiness reminiscent of eating dirt
Earthy— see "dirty"
Flat— lack of acidity, aroma, and aftertaste
Grassy— an aroma and flavor reminiscent of freshly cut lawn
Harsh— a caustic, clawing, raspy characteristic
Muddy— thick and dull
Rioy— a starchy texture similar to water which pasta has been cooked in.
Rough— a sensation on the tongue reminiscent of eating salt
Rubbery— an aroma and flavor reminiscent of burnt rubber (typically found only in dry-processed robustas)
Soft— see "bland"
Sour— tart flavors reminiscent of unripe fruit
Thin— lacking acidity, typically a result of under brewing
Turpeny— turpentine-like in flavor
Watery— a lack of body background="../images_new/bg_hei.jpg" or viscosity in the mouth
Wild— gamey characteristics
摘译自www.coffeeuniverse.com

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