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Roasting & Blending
2012/10/11 14:19:44  Views:2105
  
当高质量的咖啡豆被采摘下来后,使之成为极品咖啡的最重要的步骤就是烘焙和混合。
After quality coffee beans are obtained, the most important phase of the production of gourmet coffee begins, the roasting and the blending.
烘焙高手必须兼具艺术家的气质和科学家的严谨。这样才能保证在烘焙过程中咖啡中所含的糖和其他碳水化合物碳化,从而产生出众所周知的咖啡油脂,产生出高质量、风格一致的好咖啡。从学术上来讲,这种微妙的化学物质并不是真正的油脂(因为它可以溶于水),但它确实是咖啡的芬芳之源。
A good roaster must be part artist, and part scientist, to maintain quality and consistency. It is during the roasting process that the sugars and other carbohydrates within the bean become caramelized, creating a substance which is known as the coffee oil. Technically, this fragile chemical is not actually an oil (since it is water soluble), but it is what gives the coffee its flavor and aroma.
专业的咖啡一般都实行小批量的烘焙。最常见的烘焙方法有:鼓室烘焙法和热空气烘焙法。
Specialty coffees are generally roasted in small batches. The two most common roasting methods are: drum-roasting and hot-air roasting.
鼓室烘焙机是把咖啡豆放入旋转大桶中,燃烧煤气或木头对其进行烘焙。
Drum-type roasting machines roast the coffee beans as they tumble in a rotating drum that is typically heated by gas or wood.
当达到预期的烘培度时,就可以把咖啡豆倒入一个冷却漏斗中,以防止烘焙过度。
When the desired roast is achieved, the beans are poured into a cooling hopper to keep them from overcooking.
热空气烘焙机,也叫流态化空气烘焙机,是靠在热空气中翻滚咖啡豆,来进行烘焙。
The hot-air roaster, also known as a fluid-bed roaster, roasts the coffee beans as they tumble on a current of hot air.
大多数生咖啡豆都是在近400度的高温下进行烘焙的。在烘焙过程中,咖啡豆的体积会膨胀50%以上,而其重量却会下降。
Most green coffee is roasted at approximately 400 degrees. The roasting process causes the coffee beans to swell and increase in size by over 50%, while at the same time greatly reducing their weight.
轻度烘焙的咖啡豆颜色是介于肉桂色与浅巧克力色之间。由于它的味道偏酸,所以一般不被用于制作意式香浓咖啡。
A lightly roasted bean may range in color from cinnamon to a light chocolate tan. Lighter roasts are generally not used for espresso since they produce a sharper, more acidic taste than do darker roasts.
深度烘焙,比较而言,苦甜参半的风味更加浓郁。从咖啡豆中提取出来的香味是与烘焙时间成正比的。
Darker roasts, in contrast, have a fuller flavor approaching a bittersweet tang. The amount of oil drawn to the surface of the bean increases proportionately to the length of roasting time.
烘焙度越深,咖啡因含量越少,酸度也越小。深度烘焙的咖啡豆颜色介于富有缎面光泽的巧克力色到油亮的棕黑色。烘焙度越深,你所尝到的焦糊感越重,咖啡豆本身的风味越轻。
As the roast darkens, caffeine and acidity decrease proportionately. Dark roasts can range in color from a medium chocolate brown with a satin-like luster, to an almost black bean with an oily appearance. The darker the roast the more you will taste the char, rather than the flavor of the bean.
特别深度烘焙的咖啡豆会有一股烟熏的味道,它更适合作一般的咖啡,而不适合作意式香浓咖啡。
Extreme dark roasts will tend to have a smoky flavor, and are better suited for brewed coffee rather than espresso.
很多烘焙师都会用以下术语形容不同的烘焙度:肉桂色、中度烘焙、都市风格、完全都市风格、法式风格以及意式风格。
Many roasters refer to the following terms concerning the degree of roast, from light to dark: Cinnamon, Medium High, City, Full City, French, and finally, Espresso or Italian roast.
在美国西海岸,“法式风格”经常被用来形容最深度的烘焙。你要知道,这个术语与咖啡的原产地以及咖啡的烘焙地毫无关联。
On the West coast of the U.S., French roast is the term generally used to describe the darkest roast. It is important for you to understand that these terms have no relationship to where the coffee is grown or roasted.
世界上超过100个咖啡原产区,所出产的咖啡豆各具特色。而咖啡豆的混合是为了平衡咖啡的风味,以创造出无与伦比的美味。
With more than 100 coffee-growing regions in the world, each producing beans with distinctive characteristics, we believe proper blending is essential to the balance of flavors necessary to create superior coffee.
单一的咖啡豆一般都缺乏酿造一杯美味咖啡的必备复杂风味。很多混合咖啡都含有三到七种不同类型的咖啡豆。
A single coffee bean will generally not possess the complexity necessary for great coffee. Many espresso blends will contain three to seven different types of beans.
烘焙高手了解每一种咖啡豆的特色,并把它们艺术地混合起来,创造出一种期望的全新风味。烘焙高手混合咖啡豆的知识可谓是最高的行业机密。
The experienced roaster, with his knowledge of each bean, artfully combines them to create the desired blend of flavors. The roaster's blending knowledge is usually a closely guarded secret.
在美国,100%的阿拉比卡咖啡豆被用来混合出最上乘的混合咖啡。在文章前面提到过,在意大利,一些罗伯斯特咖啡豆被添加到混合咖啡中,以增加其油脂、咖啡因以及咖啡风味的复杂性。意大利拥有着几代混合咖啡豆的专家。
In the United States, 100% Arabica beans are generally used for gourmet espresso blends. As we mentioned earlier, in Italy, some robusta beans will often times be added for the additional crema, caffeine, and complexity they contribute to the blend. The Italians possess generations of expertise in the art of blending coffees for espresso.
先烘焙还是先混合,这一直是烘焙师们争论的一个问题。一般来讲,先将每一个单品进行烘焙,再进行混合,这样会使每一种咖啡的不同风味特点最大化,从而产生出最好的效果。瑞士咖啡人推出的Blaser经典咖啡豆即采用此种方式,为大家带来最美味的咖啡享受。
Argument still exists among roasters as to which should occur first, the roasting or the blending. Generally, roasting each varietal separately to maximize its flavor characteristics, and then blending, will produce the best result. Blaser coffee bean of Swisscoffeer roasting each varietal first, then blending.
新烘焙的咖啡豆会释放出上百种化学物质。,它需要用一两天的时间使之消散,从而达到最佳的风味。
Freshly roasted beans will release hundreds of chemical substances in the form of vapors. A day or two will generally be required for these gases to dissipate before the beans will reveal their optimal flavor characteristics.
现在,很多高质量的烘焙厂商,如Blaser,都将咖啡豆包装在有单向阀的密封袋中,以使其中的气体得以释放,使咖啡豆不至于存放在对其有破坏性的气体中。这种包装有助于保持咖啡豆的良好风味。
Today, many quality roasters,for example, Blaser, are packaging their beans in air tight bags with a one way valve, which allows the gases to escape, without the beans being exposed to the damaging air. This type of packaged should help retard flavor deterioration.
如果咖啡豆不采用此种包装方式,当包装被打开后,咖啡豆就会开始变质。咖啡豆表面的油脂也会很容易变坏。
If beans are not packaged this way, or once beans packaged air tight are exposed to the air, they will begin to deteriorate. Roasts where oils are exposed on the surface of the bean are much more vulnerable.
咖啡豆的包装打开后,如果保存恰当,10天内咖啡豆会保持绝对的新鲜。我们建议应把咖啡豆保存在干净、干燥、密封的容器中,并应放在避光的地方。
Once exposed to the air, and if properly stored, beans will stay reasonable fresh for 10 days. We recommend storing beans in a clean, dry, air-tight container, in a cool dark place.
我们不建议把咖啡豆放入冰箱储存,因为咖啡豆会吸收冰箱中的气味。同样,我们也不建议把咖啡豆冷藏,这同样会破坏咖啡豆的品质,除非你要延长咖啡豆的保质期。
We do not recommend storing beans in a refrigerator, because coffee tends to absorb flavors. Freezing coffee beans can also have a damaging effect, and is not recommended, unless the the beans must be stored for a prolonged period of time.
一般以一周为一个周期,用完并购买新的咖啡豆,会比较理想。
Ideally, you should strive to purchase and use-up your supply of roasted beans on a weekly basis
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