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Understanding
2012/10/11 14:19:15  Views:1686
  
何谓咖啡豆?咖啡豆是一种类似樱桃似的种子,它生长在海拔6000英尺、狭长的亚热带区域。
What is coffee? Coffee is the seed of a cherry from a treewhich grows from sea level to approximately 6000 feetin a narrow subtropical belt around the world.
咖啡树是常绿植物,生长高度可达20英尺。为了收获简单,一般将树剪成8到10英尺高。
Coffee trees are an evergreen and grow to heights of 20 feet. To simplify harvestingthe trees are pruned to 8 to 10 feet.
咖啡果成熟期并不一致,所以主要靠手工采摘。需要大约2000个阿拉比卡樱桃果才能制造出1磅烤制咖啡。由于每个果实有2个豆,所以1磅咖啡来自于4000颗豆。
Coffee cherries ripen at different timesso they are predominantly picked by hand. It takes approximately 2000 Arabica cherries to produce just one pound of roasted coffee. Since each cherry contains two beansyour one pound of coffee is derived from 4000 coffee beans.
每株咖啡1年平均产1到2磅烘烤咖啡。咖啡树苗需要4-5年才能开始结果。
The average coffee tree only produces one to two pounds of roasted coffee per yearand takes four to five years to produce its first crop.
咖啡树开白色小花,呈簇状,外形和气味与茶树相似。花期只有几天,然后结出绿色的小咖啡果,成熟后呈黄色、红色,最后几乎变成黑色。成熟期6到9个月。
The coffee plant first produces delicate clusters of white blossomsresembling jasmine in shape and scent. These blossoms last only a few days. Small green coffee cherries then begin to appear and ripen to yellow... red... and finally almost blackwithin six to nine months.
咖啡果采摘后就送去加工。有两种脱去外皮的方法:自然法,也秤干法;即晒干或烘干后用机械方法分离。湿法稍微先进,又称为浸泡法;所制备的咖啡豆又称水洗豆。
Once the coffee cherries are pickedthey are transported for processing. The fruit is then removed from the seed by one of two methods. The natural or dry processwhere the cherries are dried in the sun or in dryersand the fruit is then separated from the bean by processing them through a mechanical husker. Orby a superior soaking method know as the wet processwhich produces beans which are referred to as washed coffees.
绿色咖啡豆干燥、按大小分类、分级挑选,通常全凭手工。装袋后运到世界各地的烘烤店。我们日常所用的物品,很少象咖啡这样,需要这么多人力劳动。
The green beans are then driedsizedsortedgraded and selectedusually all by hand. The beans are then bagged and are ready for shipment to local roasters around the world. Few products we use require so much in terms of human effort.
商业上熟知的两种咖啡豆是:阿拉比卡豆和罗伯斯特豆。
The two commercially significant species of coffee beans are: coffea arabicaand coffea robusta.
阿拉比卡豆在海拔3000英尺高度生长最好,咖啡品质上乘,芳香浓烈。但咖啡因含量仅为罗伯斯特豆的一半。阿拉比卡豆占全球咖啡贸易额的80%,但仅仅10%能达到特制咖啡的标准。
Arabica beans grow best at altitudes over 3000 feet. This species produces superior quality coffeeswhich possess the greatest flavor and aromatic characteristics. They typically contain half the caffeine of the robusta beans. Arabica production represents 80% of the world's coffee tradehoweveronly 10% of this meets speciality coffee standards.
罗伯斯特豆生长的海拔较低的地区,容易种植,产量高,耐病虫害;但带有木质的刺激气味。如果需要廉价咖啡,或者需要的咖啡因含量较高,就可以选择罗伯斯特豆。意式香浓咖啡中通常掺入少量罗伯斯特豆,意在取其额外香味和复杂特质。
Robusta beans are usually grown at lower elevations. Robusta trees are easier to growproduce higher yieldsand are more disease resistant than the arabica species. Robusta beans usually possess a woodyastringent flavor. They are used when a lower price or additional caffeine is desired. A small percentage is typically added to many Italian espresso blends for the additional crema and complexity they contribute.
除了咖啡豆种类不同,其他因素也会影响绿色咖啡豆的总体质量。种子批次,种植地区,土壤,纬度,气候条件,肥料,种植方法,收获和处理方法,都会影响最终产品的质量。
In addition to the species of the coffeemany other factors contribute to the overall quality of the green beans. Seed stockplantation locationsoil compositionaltitudeweather conditionsfertilizationcultivationharvestingand processing methodswill all have a dramatic influence on the finished product
摘译自www.coffeeuniverse.com
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